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Motorcycle History – Fun Facts For Kids

Kids, the first motorcycle sold was a Hildebrand and Wolfmuller. This was in 1894 when many kids rode bicycles…

Engines and Frames

Bicycle companies put a new invention, the internal combustion engine, onto their bicycles.

When new engines became more powerful the standard bicycle frames, wheels and chains could not handle them.

Bicycle builders decided to make frames made of steel. The steel frames did the job much as they do today.

Most Popular Motobikes

Before First World War, the largest motorcycle company in the world was Indian Motors. They produced 20,000 motorbikes a year.

By 1920, Harley-Davidson sold more street bikes in more than 67 countries.

Today, Honda, Kawasaki, Suzuki, and Yamaha are the most popular with enthusiasts. Harley-Davidson is still a driving force in the United States.

BMW, KTM, Triumph, Aprilia, Moto Guzzi and Ducati are also popular new street rides to buy…


Coloring pages kids, a steel or aluminum frame holds modern motorcycle parts and accessories.

Telescopic forks hold the front wheel, and disc brakes. Expect a one-cylinder to six-cylinder gasoline powered engine.

The engine is coupled to a manual, five- or six-speed sequential transmission with a swing arm-mounted rear wheel by a chain, drive shaft or belt.

A wind tunnel helps the engineers mimic real-life riding conditions. Different racing speeds test seating and body positions.

Experts can judge the best riding positions for racing bikes, off-road motorbikes and street cycles…

Accessories and Gear

Designed for comfort are various modern motorcycle attachments:

A “Fairing” is a plastic or fiberglass shell. It fits over the front frame of the bike. A fairing helps move the cycle smoothly and protects the engine in an accident. Fairings on touring rides improve your comfort and alertness on long rides. They reduce the harsh wind, cold and rain on your body…

“Windshields or windscreens” are built into a fairing or be attached to an unfaired motorbike. They are of transparent high-impact plastic. They direct airflow over or around your head. If you would like to raise and lower the windscreen with the push of a button, get an electric windscreen.

“Saddlebags or Panniers” rest on either side of the rear wheel to carry parts, tools, and, or travel gear.

“Heated Hand grips and Heated Seats” keep you warm in the cold and during night rides.

“Luggage Racks” remove the need for backpacks. They are a more secure and safe way to add carrying capacity to your rocket cycle…

A “Sidecar” is a one-wheeled partially covered seat. The sidecar attaches to the side of your motorcycle. Your big sister can sit in it and ride with you. Just remember to bring her back.

A “Trunk” is a storage box. Above and behind the seat the trunk is mounted…

Motorcycle Clubs

Clubs and organizations are popular. You can meet new rider kids, their buddies and their families.

The clubs are organized according countries, states, cities and neighborhoods. Individual motor bike makes or motorbike models have fan clubs.

You can join, if you qualify, groups like the American Motorcyclist Association, Harley Owners Group, Moto Guzzi National Owners Club, and Gold Wing Road Riders…

We will wrap it up…

Motorcycle kids – boys, you did a good job. You learned about Motorcycle:

  • Inventions
  • Clubs
  • Accessories and Gear
  • Parts
  • Popular Motorcycles
  • Engines and Frames

You can now give good answers to questions about the history of motorcycles. The End.


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4 Interesting Facts About Renaissance Doctors and Medicine

Do you usually link Renaissance to advances in medicine? Typically, when we talk about the Renaissance period, we talk about an explosion of learning and creativity. From paintings to music, this was a tremendous time for the arts in particular. However, the era of the Renaissance, which lasted from the middle 1400s until the 1700s, also featured major developments in European medicine. Here are some of the important facts surrounding the Renaissance period and medicine:

1. New knowledge and inventions improved medicine

A flurry of new knowledge and inventions helped to advance medicine quickly, during the Renaissance. There were no instruments yet to observe bacteria, and thus create a need for cheap urbane scrubs. However, diagrams of the human body and the printing press both had a huge influence on the world of medicine. Thus, doctors had a better comprehension of how the human body functioned, than during any previous era in Europe’s history.

2. Galen was no longer king

During the previous Middle Ages, the medical world considered Galen’s writings to be infallible. Galen was an ancient Greek living in Rome, who had developed the concepts of Hippocrates, “The Father of Medicine.”

However, during the Renaissance, doctors took a more practical and academic approach to training in their profession. Medical students studied from books with realistic diagrams of humans. In addition to better books, doctors-in-training also had access to more of them, thanks to the invention of the printing press. In fact, universities even permitted students to dissect humans, towards the end of the Renaissance. This practice had previously been limited to animals.

3. Science began to supersede spirituality

During the Renaissance, people still held to some spiritual reasoning regarding diseases. For instance, people were unaware that bacteria existed, and could spread from person-to-person. However, logic became king, due to a new wealth of knowledge available, and an efficient way to distribute it faster-the printing press. In addition, the training for surgical procedures greatly improved. Apprentices would learn surgical techniques, from an active surgeon. Interestingly, universities themselves failed to supply doctors-in-training with these skills. Nevertheless, the improvements in textbooks about human anatomy significantly boosted the complexity of the surgeries that doctors did.

4. Many did not embrace advances in medicine

While the Renaissance ushered in a new era of medical knowledge and skills, not everyone was impressed. During the Renaissance, home remedies remained a vital aspect of medical treatment, for many people. In fact, some people still sought treatments from local shaman who lacked formal training in the medical profession. Also, many “old-school” doctors and the Catholic Church still adhered to the teachings of Galen. However, within time, medical advances during the Renaissance would revolutionize the whole professional.

The Renaissance was clearly an era of enlightenment and developments. Besides the fantastic output in the arts, the medical profession flourished as well. While doctors were yet unaware of bacteria or the need to wear scrubs during surgeries, they were nonetheless learning. Essentially starting with the Renaissance, spiritual doctors were becoming scientific doctors!

Childhood Obesity – A Serious Problem

‘A fat body makes a lean mind’, said someone. And you certainly don’t want that to apply to your child. So here’s the wake-up call- Childhood obesity has taken epidemic proportions in the United States. It is today the most common pediatric medical problem in the country. In an era of fast foods and video games, preventing your child from becoming obese is a challenge.

It’s quite alarming to note that a study conducted earlier this year, by the Centers of Disease Control and Prevention shows that about 32 percent of children were overweight, 16 percent were obese and 11 percent were extremely obese. Obesity also seems to be more prevalent among boys than girls. With the problem reaching crisis proportions even junk food makers have expressed that children should be steered toward more healthful choices. So what are the causes of childhood obesity and how can you prevent it?

“Children have never been very good at listening to their elders, but they have never failed to imitate them”, said James Baldwin at the California Child Obesity Conference in 2003. Children themselves are not entirely responsible for the problem. Adults have a big share in it too. Parents need to develop healthy lifestyles to encourage healthy lifestyles in children. Also, most parents do not spend enough time with children to encourage physical activity everyday. Consequently, children spend most of their time playing video games or watching TV, growing up to be couch potatoes.

Junk food and soda have been primary contributors too. A study conducted by the Kaiser Foundation, a nonprofit organization, found that effect of junk food ads was more on 8-12 year old children, as they are unable to distinguish between ads and TV programs. This age-group is exposed to approximately 21 junk food ads per day. Therefore there is a need to prevent junk food ads during TV programs aimed at children. But before blaming TV ads or junk food manufacturers, here’s what you can do to prevent your child from becoming obese:

  • Make your child aware of the ill-effects of eating junk food and the benefits of eating fruits and vegetables.
  • Encourage your child to participate in a good amount of physical activity everyday. Make them exercise.
  • Monitor their TV-viewing habits and ensure they don’t spend too much time in front of the TV.
  • Develop a healthier lifestyle and act as a role-model to your child, because your child imitates you.

It’s time to give this some serious thought, because childhood obesity can cause major health problems like type 2 diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia (disruption of the amount of lipids in the blood), chronic inflammation and Hyperinsulinemia (excess levels of circulating insulin in the blood). It can also cause cardiovascular diseases at later stages. Childhood obesity can be very difficult to cure, since children who are obese are prone to obesity throughout their lives. So think about it. It’s in your hands to make your child lead a healthy life!

Four Types of Bonds of Love Between Man and Woman

The world is extremely mysterious. Every day we see many things that we take for granted without knowing how and why this happens. From billions of years people saw apple falling on the ground, yet they never thought why apple falls to the ground and does not go up. Newton for the first time thought, that there must be some force that must be pulling apple down to earth. This thought resulted to the discovery of gravity, the universal force of attraction that existed between all material entities of the universe since its origin. Gradually, scientists also discovered the electrical and magnetic forces between electrical charges and magnetic substances. Yet scientists could never find any satisfactory answer as to why different types of materials attract or repulse?

What is true in the world of particle is also true in the world of living beings. Every specie of the world gets attracted towards the member of opposite sex. Yet hardly any answers as to why it happens. We all as human beings are aware of the force of attraction that pulls us towards each other, yet we can not know why it happens.

The Reason for Attraction

While scientists have no reason to explain why material attracts, yet they have discovered some reason for the attraction between male and female species using the theory of evolution. They believe that the attraction between male and female species in this world is due to their desire to mate so that they reproduce children. These theories are based on the Darwin’s evolution principle as no spies would survive otherwise than reproduction. Yet the answer is incomplete as even after the people have produced the children, the forces of attraction des not diminish.

Studies show that certain physical characteristics stimulate the brain’s hypothalamus, leading to elevated heart rate, perspiration, and feelings of sexual arousal. What leads to this response? Perhaps the most obvious is a youthful appearance, which is linked to reproductive capacity. [Buss, David M. The Evolution of Desire: Strategies of Human Mating. New York: HarperCollins, 1994] Women are similarly attracted to men for what they have to offer in terms of reproduction.

Yet the dull scientific research always misses the mystery of the universe. What causes heart rate, perspiration and feelings to rise? These actions seem nothing less than a miracle though we know that they happen. Einstein captured these thoughts in the following words

“There are only two ways to live your life. One is as though nothing is a miracle. The other is as though everything is a miracle.”

The clue to the physical attraction can be found from our knowledge of physics. For example, we all know that opposite charges attract. We know that all materials are neutral in their natural state. However they gets charged when electrons are removed from the material which make them positively charged while the matter having excess electrons are negativity charged. Hence the opposite charges attract so that they can neutralize their charges and come back to their original conditions. Same explanation exists for the magnetic particles.

We can also explain the attractions due to gravity using the same principles as even science believes that all matter and energy were one before the big-bang. Hence all maters seems to attract towards each other to attain the original neutral state of the matter and energy.

Using the same principle, it can be said that perhaps the attraction between the opposite sexes is due to their desire to become one as they were one sometime in past. We call it love as we know that it exists (like gravity) yet we can’t know why it exists. Since every human being is not only a body but also mind, soul and spirit (God), hence four types of love exists between the species of the human race.

1. Physical Bonds: The Basic Instinct

The most primitive and fundamental for of love between male and female is due to the differences in their body. The physical designs are complementary to each other which attracts towards each other. People get satisfaction and pleasure in the company of the person of the opposite sex. Even touch of hand is pleasurable and transmits energy and love. The reason seems to be chemical as the body shows increased flow of body fluids and chemicals when the physical bonding between male and females takes place.

The physical bonding between boy and girl is expressed by Tina Turner is one of the song “What’s Love Got To Do With It” that captured te imagination of billions of people all over the world in the eighties.

You must understand

That the touch of your hand

Makes my pulse react

That it`s only the thrill

Of boy meeting girl

Opposites attract

It`s physical

Only logical

You must try to ignore

That it means more than that


Oh whats love got to do, got to do with it

What`s love but a second hand emotion

What`s love got to do, got to do with it

Who needs a heart

When a heart can be broken


Physical Bonding is the oldest and most fundamental form of love that exits between man and woman. Prostitutions are considered to be the oldest profession of the world that humanity discovered to tap this attraction between male and female.

2. Mental Bonds: Friendship

While the animals find only the physical bonding between the opposite sexes as they fail to raise much above the physical level, male with their increased mental faculty found another form of boding that binds males and females. This bond also exists between the members of same sexes.

Friendship is found between the people having complementary thoughts. In the words of Mencius

“Friendship is one mind in two bodies.”

The mind of every person desires to know what it does not know so as to make itself whole. That knowledge may be living with someone elses mind. The friendship stems from the desire of two people to share their thoughts so that their minds grow and become complete.

The mind of male and females are as complementary as their bodies. Thus every man finds a different way of looking at the world, when he sees the worlds through the eyes of the woman. Thus a man who has good friendship with women is the epitome of “goodness” as his mind is fully grown up. On the contrary, the people who does not have friends in the member of opposite senses, are truly evil without doubt as their view is extremely unbalanced. All dictators and despots never had friendship with women and the list includes Hitler, Stalin and Mao though they had physical bonding with the women. Hence their minds were never truly evolved. The mind of a person can have the satisfaction, tranquility and peace only if it has friends in the members of opposite sex.

3. Emotional Bonding: The Feeling of Love

The most beautiful and powerful relationship that exits between the male and female is emotional. All emotions spring automatically in people due to the desire of souls to become one. The souls of a man and woman are complementary to each other as they originate from the same source. This is not only a philosophical truth but also a physical truth. Hence they always aspire to meet each other so as to balance each other like the opposite electrical charges or magnets of opposite poles.

The emotional bonding between a man and a woman is often so powerful that people even sacrifice their lives or kill themselves in their attempt to become one. Love is often called the fetal attraction as it is responsible for most of the crimes of this world.

Love is like a chemical reaction that transforms the souls of man and woman. People in love are changed from their core due to the transformation of their soul just like hydrogen and oxygen loses their identity when they combine to make the drop of water.

Love alone brings peace and happiness in the life of people which can not be bought with all the wealth of the world.

4. Spiritual Bonding: God in All

Man and woman also share the highest level of spiritual bonds with each other. The spiritual relationship is based on the non-physical relationship between the people. In this type of relationship, people have no expectation from each other as they all seems to merge their identity with God or Holy Spirit that is the origin of all entities of the universe.

The spiritual or nonphysical bonding exists between the people of opposite sexes in many forms. It is manifested in the form of love to mother, love to children, love to siblings and at later stage of the life even between the love of spouse. Spiritual love is the final stage of love between every person when the bonding evolves to its highest level. The seed of this love is always present in the person and it is first manifested in the child with his or her love of mother. Gradually all other forms of love diminish and only the spiritual love remains in the most evolved human beings in this world like Jesus, Buddha or Gandhi. This form of love is truly selfless and unconditional.

The Evolution of Human Bonding

All bonding between human beings can be classified in the four types viz. body, mind, soul and spirit. The journey of life starts from the spiritual bonding of love that alone exists in a child. However as the body, mind and soul of the person grows in this world, the bonding of love gets manifested in different forms. While in case of animals , the bonding hardly crosses the physical level, in man it evolves from physical to mental to emotional and finally takes a full circle and comes back to the level of spiritual level. Spiritual love makes a man divine and integrates him with God so that he achieves his salvation or goal of life. The cycle of life continues till a man realizes his spiritual love with God and man.

6 Negative Effects Of Eating Fast Food

1. Fast food has a very high energy density. About 65 percent higher than a typical diet and twice as high as recommended healthy diets which makes us eat more than we otherwise would. Energy density refers to the amount of calories an item of food contains in relation to its weight. Foods with a high energy density confuse the brain’s control systems for appetite, which are based solely on portion size.

2. British researchers from the Medical Research Council Human Nutrition Center and the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine have determined that repeated eating at McDonald’s or KFC or Burger King, people are more likely to gain weight and become obese. This is because fast food not only contains many more calories than traditional food, but also is more likely to undermine normal appetite control systems.

3. By eating a Big Mac and fries, the body consumes almost twice as many calories as you would if you ate the same weight of pasta and salad. Fast Food restaurants feed the obesity epidemic by getting people to eat many more calories than they need through persistent advertising.

4. McDonald’s, KFC, and Burger King menu items using nutritional data from the fast food restaurants’ Web sites, found that when we eat high energy density foods, we don’t reduce the portion size so we get a lot more calories than we need. Our current society possesses a weak innate ability to recognize foods with a high energy density. Food intake is assessed by the size of the portion, yet a fast food meal contains many more calories than a similar sized portion of a healthy meal. The conclusion is we are all being fooled into eating too much food.

5. People get fat eating regular portion sizes, but since the food has a high energy density, people gain weight. In evolutionary terms, the human appetite was designed for low energy density foods. In other parts of the world where these foods are still the dietary staples, obesity is virtually non existent. Our bodies were never designed to cope with the high energy dense foods consumed in the West. That is a major reason why fast food in contributing to the major rise in obesity.

6. Another fact is that fast food may speed up people’s risk of clogged arteries that can lead to heart attacks. Researchers at the Veterans Administration Medical Center in San Francisco have demonstrated that a certain type of fat, called oxidized fat, can accelerate the buildup of plaque in arteries. And many types of fast food such as hamburgers, pizza and French fries are loaded with oxidized fat. The conclusion is fast food meals are high in saturated fat and low quality carbohydrates, white bread and lots of soda. Our bodies require fiber and more healthful types of fats. Fast food represents a dietary pattern that is the opposite of what is recommended for a healthy body.

Medical Scribe Companies Take On Overload Of Medical Documentation

Physicians’ offices across the country have an increased responsibility to make sure that the patients’ records are updated properly after each visit. This can create a lot of extra paperwork for doctors and for their staff. Medical scribe companies are able to take on this extra responsibility allowing the medical staff to have more time to take care of their patients.

These companies will take information from the medical record and make a report that summarizes the appointment that they had. They will ensure that the spelling is correct. There are a lot of choices that everybody will need to consider.

These reports have to be accurate so that people are aware of what their medical record says. They have many different types of things that each report will have in it. This can include a summary of past appointments or diagnosis.

This can also include what changes have shown up based on information from the last appointment until this appointment. There are many different types of things that will be on each report that will help with future treatments too. The treatment will be noted on there as well as any concerns that anyone has.

The patient is going to be able to use this report to understand what the doctor is saying. Not all doctors are going to give their patients their summation of the appointments though. Some patients may not know everything that their doctor has noticed during their appointment.

Every appointment is going to be recorded also. This is something that every medical professional has to keep on record. They are not something that can be destroyed over a certain amount of time either.

The responsibilities that doctors have when they are treating patients can affect how thorough that their appointment is. There are many different types of things that everybody is going to be treated for. This is something that is going to be very important when thinking about their treatment plan.

Using a medical scribe company can have its advantages for every type of doctor. This is something that is going to be very important to them. They have the convenience of knowing that these reports are going to be accurate too.

The people who are typing up the reports will have some medical knowledge so that they can make the report make sense as well. They are not going to be hiring people who do not know about these things. This is something that is a requirement for most of these companies.

Being able to use these services is going to be very helpful to every medical office. There are many different things that every patient and doctor will need to know. There are many choices for each of the different diagnosis that are given.

The treatment plans and referrals that were given to the patient is going to be included in these reports too. Everybody has to make sure that they have accurate information provided in these. They will become a permanent part of the medical records.

These reports can help a doctor to summarize all of the different problems that a patient has too. They may be able to figure out a disease or condition that is causing all of their problems. Not everyone is going to have a diagnosis that is easy for them.

Medical scribe companies do not make any decisions regarding the treatment or diagnosis of a patient though. They are only going to be able to document what was already said about the appointment. Medications that are prescribed during the appointment will be noted. This can include testing and other procedures as well.

Hydrilla Verticillata: A True Superfood Plant

Hydrilla Verticillata Health Benefits: Potent Nutrition – A True Green Superfood

Hydrilla Verticillata is an aquatic plant that grows in fresh water bodies throughout the Americas. This little-known nutritional powerhouse is a true green superfood in every sense of the word. Just one tablespoon (4.75g) contains 624mg Calcium (62.4% DV) and 475 mcg B-12 (7,750% DV) making Hydrilla the world’s most concentrated source of these nutrients. Hydrilla is also exceptionally rich in B-Vitamins and a host of other minerals, amino acids, essential fatty acids, enzymes, antioxidants, and health promoting compounds. By weight, Hydrilla is about 50-60% complete protein and furthermore contains high amounts of lysine.

Hydrilla powder supports the immune system, weight loss, healthy skin (amazing detoxifier), strong bones (excellent source of fully bioavailable calcium), overall nutrition and is a stimulant-free source of natural energy.

Hydrilla’s nutrient density is attributed to its root structure, which grows deep into pure subterranean soil that has an abundance of essential and trace minerals. Other well-known aquatic green foods such as spirulina or blue green algae, live on top of fresh water where they absorb nutrients as well as contaminants from the water surface in addition to airborne contaminants. Hydrilla, being a rooted plant, is protected from airborne and floating contaminants, making it a cleaner aquatic plant. In addition, submerged aquatic plants like Hydrilla accumulate nutrients from both the soil and water. This gives them the ability to absorb more nutrients than surface plants. This advantage is especially true of mineral content. Submerged macrophytes have a higher concentration of calcium, magnesium, phosphorus and trace minerals

Calcium Is Key to Maintaining Radiant Health

Unlike calcium found in synthetic vitamin and mineral supplements, Hydrilla contains a an extremely bioavailable form that is fully utilized by the body. The calcium in Hydrilla is loaded with nutrient co-factors that allow for full absorption, whereas calcium found in the vast majority of vitamin pills is poorly absorbed. Typically, synthetic calcium is only absorbed at about 20% of the total amount in a given product and tends to contribute to over-alkalinity of the digestive tract, which often leads to a variety of health problems such as candida, among others.

Adequate daily calcium is difficult to obtain from diet alone. Dairy products are typical sources of calcium for many people, but in their current form, are a poor source due to rampant homogenization and pasteurization processes in the dairy industry. Pasteurization (the heating of milk to between 150-275 for a period of time) and homogenization (the high pressure processing of milk which chemically alters the fat molecules) negatively affects the body’s ability to absorb calcium from dairy products, resulting in decreased absorption. Raw milk, although available in some areas, is harder to come by. Even so, 1 cup of raw milk only has approx. 290mg of calcium (source: Self Nutrient Database, milk) whereas Hydrilla has 312mg of calcium in 1.5 teaspoons.

Other sources of calcium such as the green leafy vegetables spinach, chard, kale and others are loaded with oxalic acid which severely inhibits the absorption of calcium, making them mediocre sources at best (Hydrilla does not contain oxalic acid). Furthermore, the Recommended Daily Intake of calcium is quite high at around 1000mg for adults daily. The vast majority of people, and especially those on vegan/vegetarian/raw diets fall far short of this.

With 624mg of fully bioavailable calcium per tablespoon, Hydrilla powder is an incredibly potent source of this hard to get, yet essential mineral. Adding Hydrilla to ones diet can help those deficient in calcium obtain adequate amounts when included as part of a complete, well-rounded diet.

Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the human body and plays a critical role in multiple cellular processes and tissues. The majority of calcium is found in the bones and teeth. When the body is deficient in calcium or overly acidic, it pulls the mineral from the bones and teeth for use as a pH buffer in the blood or for use in cellular processes, leading to osteoporosis and tooth decay. The Linus Pauling Institute states that, “The physiological functions of calcium are so vital to survival that the body will demineralize bone to maintain normal blood calcium levels when calcium intake is inadequate. Thus, adequate dietary calcium is a critical factor in maintaining a healthy skeleton”

Calcium is one of a group of minerals that exert a sedative effect on the nervous system. Therefore, calcium deficiency is often accompanied by anxiety and stress.

Vitamin B-12 and its Role in Mood, Nervous System Health and DNA Synthesis

Hydrilla powder is the most concentrated source of naturally occurring B12 on the planet. Hydrilla contains 500mcg of B12 in one tablespoon, whereas oysters, the runner up for B12 nutrient density, provide approx. 50-100mcg per cup (source: Self Nutrient Database, oysters). Additionally, vegan/vegetarian sources of B12 are notoriously rare and even then only contain minute quantities of the nutrient, making them virtually useless as a reliable source of the vitamin (Hydrilla is a vegan product).

Vitamin B12 research has demonstrated a significant link between the nutrient, mood, and nervous system disorders. People experiencing fatigue, depression, brain fog, anxiety and other neurological symptoms often respond well to supplementation, as B12 plays an important role in the synthesis of neurotransmitters as well as the myelin sheath, which is critical for proper nerve transmission (source: Tufts Medical Center). Studies with Rats showed a strong correlation between vitamin B12 deficiency and low neurotransmitter levels (source: Deana R).

B12 also plays a major role in the synthesis of RNA and DNA. The Linus Pauling Institute explains:

“Methylcobalamin is required for the function of the folate-dependent enzyme, methionine synthase. This enzyme is required for the synthesis of the amino acid, methionine, from homocysteine. Methionine in turn is required for the synthesis of S-adenosylmethionine, a methyl group donor used in many biological methylation reactions, including the methylation of a number of sites within DNA and RNA.” (source: Linus Pauling Institute)

One tablespoon of Hydrilla powder provides 7,750% (500mcg) of the Recommended Daily Intake (RDI) of Vitamin B12. It is suggested that first time users start with a one teaspoon and work up from there to find a level that suits them. According to the National Institute of Health’s Office of Dietary Supplements, B12 showed no adverse effects in those taking relatively high doses of 1mg (1,000mcg) per day for 5 years. They state:

“The IOM did not establish a UL [upper limit] for vitamin B12 because of its low potential for toxicity. In Dietary Reference Intakes: Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline, the IOM states that “no adverse effects have been associated with excess vitamin B12 intake from food and supplements in healthy individuals.” (source: National Institute of Health)

Note: This entire product statement has not been evaluated by the Food & Drug Administration. This product is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease.


Self Nutrition Data: “Milk, Whole, 3.25% milkfat”

Self Nutrition Data: “Mollusks, Oysters, Eastern, Wild, Raw”

Tufts Medical Center Homepage: “Vitamin B-12”

Deana R., Vincenti E., Deana AD., “Levels of Neurotransmitters in Brain of Vitamin B12 Deficient Rats”, International Journal of Vitamin Nutrition Research

Linus Pauling Institute: “Micronutrient Database: Vitamin B-12”

National Institutes of Health – Office of Dietary Supplements: “Vitamin B-12”

Diseases of Dentistry: What Is Your Dentist Looking for at Exam Appointments?

You enter the dental office and it is time for your yearly exam. Have you ever wondered what is going on with the x-rays and what is going on inside your mouth? There is a method to all this madness, just like at your physical you are getting checked for various diseases.


Cavities, or dental caries are caused by acid and bacteria. The bacteria themselves cause acid which dissolves the enamel of the tooth. When the bacteria feed on carbohydrates the produce this acid, which is why sugary snacks are a risk for tooth decay. Other sources of acid can also cause damage. Carbonation from soda, energy drinks, and even acid reflux and vomiting can weaken the enamel. The enamel softens gradually and decays,eventually the softened area becomes large enough that it needs to be filled.

At your dental visit there are a few ways that cavities are detected. One way is x-rays. Your dentist will look for areas on the x-ray that look like shadows, these areas are where the enamel is less dense and cavities have formed. Another method that may be used is a visual exam by the dentist. They may blow air on the teeth to see if the tooth has a chalky color that is common in early cavities or areas where there is obvious visual decay. They may also feel the teeth with an instrument to check for soft areas. Finally there is a method that uses laser fluorescence to detect decay. These instruments give a numerical value that equates to how severe the decay is, from healthy with no decay to severe decay. The DIAGNOdent and the Spectra Caries Detection Aid are the most common ones used. These instruments allow detection of early decay so it can be treated before it becomes more severe and costly.

Periodontal Disease

Periodontal Disease is extremely common. The most obvious result of periodontal disease is loss of bone and eventually teeth. If you have ever looked at someone’s smile and their teeth appear long you have seen someone with periodontal disease. The way level of periodontal disease is assessed at the dentist includes a full periodontal assessment. During this assessment your gums will be measured with an instrument that is like a little ruler. It measures the space between the tooth and the gum called the sulcus or pocket. Additionally any root surface showing above the gum-line will be measured. The teeth will be checked for mobility or looseness, bleeding and the degree of plaque and tartar on the teeth will be assessed. The combination of this data, along with your health history will help determine your treatment.

Your x-rays are another way that your bone level can be evaluated. There are additional screenings that can be done which will tell which particular bacteria are in your mouth but those are not used as frequently in initial screenings.

If there is no bone loss or bleeding your gums are healthy. That is great. If there is bleeding but you have not lost bone you have gingivitis, which is the earliest stage of periodontal disease. Luckily this is reversible with proper treatment. Finally if you have lost bone and there is bleeding you will be diagnosed with active periodontal disease, which will need treatment to avoid losing even more bone and eventually teeth.


The third disease that is screened for at the dental office is cancer. During a manual oral cancer screening you will be asked to stick out your tongue and areas of the mouth will be looked at and touched. Your dentist may pull on your tongue to get a better look. Dental professionals are trained to find suspicious lesions. In addition to this manual oral cancer screening many offices do additional screenings using the aid of special lights. You may go to an office that does Vizilite, Velscope of Identifi screenings. These additional screening methods are used to detect cancer earlier than the manual screening. It is a great addition to your check up because early detection saves lives.

Why is all this necessary?

A thorough assessment should be done at regular intervals to make sure that you are healthy and avoid painful, costly and lengthy procedures. Problems in the mouth don’t tend to get better on their own. Without proper treatment these problems progress. A cavity will get bigger and may eventually need a root canal, or an extraction. Untreated periodontal disease is an infection that can interfere with your health in other parts of your body. Bone loss will not get better, but can progress without treatment. Undiagnosed cancer will not go away and can spread to other areas of the body. Knowledge is power. Understanding what is going on in your own body is important to taking control of your health and you life.

Like doctors and nurses, dentists and dental hygienists care about your health and aim to provide the best care possible. Unfortunately there are many people who don’t constantly get these check ups. Often, patients with dentures think they don’t need to go to the dentist because they don’t have natural teeth to worry about. They may not realize that oral cancer screenings are so important. Another barrier to treatment is lack of insurance. Even patients that do have insurance often turn down recommended treatment due to cost. Unfortunately many patients believe that if they really needed something insurance would cover it. This is unfortunate because it may lead to more serious disease in the long run, when diseases are not diagnosed early.

Next time you go in for your check up at the dentist pay attention to the screenings that you receive. If you feel like you did not get screened for any of these diseases ask for it. It is important that you take control of your own health. If you had a suspicious lump you would fight to get it checked by a physician, but more importantly you would hope that it would be caught before it became something dangerous. Be your own advocate. Ask to be screened for all three, cavities, periodontal disease and cancer.

Glycoproteins and Their Benefits For Health


In 1999 the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine was awarded to Gunter Blobel for the discovery that proteins have intrinsic signals that govern their transport and localisation in the cell. It was based on this research into how cells use these signals that the functions of glycoproteins were discovered.

Glycoproteins are molecules that have a sugars and protein bonded together. The sugar chains of glycoproteins play a role in determining their destination in the cell or body. The bonding of sugars to proteins to form glycoproteins significantly alters the properties of these proteins.

There are eight sugars that predominantly bond with proteins to form glycoproteins, these are: xylose, galactose, glucose, mannose, fucose, N-acetylgalactosamine, N-acetylglucosamine and N-acetylneuraminic acid.


Glycans contain biologic information and are the specific sequence of sugars in a glycoprotein that determine its recognition and interaction with other molecules in the cell, often resulting in a biologic effect or response. These impart their function to glycoproteins.

Glycoproteins have many functions in the human body. A few functions of interest is that they are used structurally in the body to form some types of collagen; or are involved in cell-cell interactions, such as in the proteins involved in sperm-egg interactions during fertilisation or how cells stick together to form tissues and communicate with each other. They also function in cell signalling.

Cell signaling is the related study of how healthy cells respond appropriately in health to various stimuli e.g., hormones, growth factors, drugs, cell-cell contact, etc. Glycoproteins on the surface of one cell bind to glycoprotein receptors on another cell, which allows the cells to communicate with one another. These communications then result in other cellular events, such as secretion of bioactive substances, killing of bacteria and cell debris, inhibition of adherence necessary for bacterial infection. Conversely, the responses may be inappropriate in certain diseases, such as cancer and cancer cell metastasis.

Lectins, for example, are proteins that selectively bind glycans. One lectin will recognize and bind mannose at the end of a glycan, whereas others will recognize and bind to glycans containing fucose, galactose, or other sugars. A class of lectins called selectins helps white blood cells to sites of inflammation.


Glyconutrition is the supplementation the 8 principal sugars that are needed by the body to from glycoproteins. They are considered essential nutrients, much the same as essential amino acids or essential fatty acids, which means you have to get them from your diet.


Metabolic pathways exist for synthesis of non-glucose sugars from glucose, and it has long been thought that glucose is the most important dietary sugar; it has recently been shown that glycoprotein formation actually prefer to utilize non-glucose essential sugars (e.g. mannose) provided in the diet as substrates. In fact, if only glucose is supplied, the liver severely malfunctions, due to a lack of the other essential sugars, indicating that the body simply cannot synthesize all the other essential sugars from glucose to the extent that they are needed.


These 8 sugars will only appear in fruit and vegetables that are vine ripened; this essentially means the fruit or vegetable ripens on the plant. However this is a process that no longer happens in modern agriculture. Much of our fruit and vegetables are picked when green, and artificially ripened prior to being put on the shelves at the supermarket. This means sadly that we have to supplement with them to obtain the eight necessary sugars essential for health.


As can be seen from the preceding paragraphs, glycoproteins are vital in the health and maintenance of the human body; so much so, that extensive research has been conducted on them in relation to certain diseases.

Implications for cancer. Research has shown that there are changes to the sugars in glycoproteins of cancer cells. These changes relate to adhesion properties of the cancer cell and their ability to adhere to other cells in the body or to metastasize. These altered glycoproteins may also relate to the ability of the tumour to avoid the responses of the immune system. Altered glycoproteins have been found in intestinal, pancreatic, liver, ovarian, prostate, and lung cancers.

Glycoproteins that have mannose in their structure has been shown to activate macrophages (an immune system cell), one of the most important cells involved in fighting cancer. Also, the release of substances from the macrophage is stimulated, which activates natural killer cells (another immune system cell involved in the elimination of cancer cells).

Implications for chronic fatigue syndrome and fibromyalgia. The principle symptoms of these conditions include muscle and joint pain, chronic fatigue, non-restorative sleep, chronic tension, migraine headaches, and bowel and bladder irritability. The immune, endocrine (e.g. hormones), nervous (e.g. neurotransmitters, sleep pathways, psychological stress), and muscular (e.g. tender points) systems of the body are all intimately involved in these syndromes. Glycoproteins all play important roles in maintaining the health and normal functioning of these systems. Therefore supplementation with the 8 simple sugars may positively impact on these syndromes.

Implications for inflammation. Inflammation in itself is not a disease, but rather occurs as result of tissue injury, such as in bacterial infection. Inflammation is usually beneficial to the individual. However, this process can get out of hand, as many diseases that affect us are inflammatory in origin. As noted earlier, glycoproteins help guide immune cells to sites of inflammation, as well as they are involved in the process of allowing the immune cells to traverse the wall of blood vessels and enter the tissues at the site of inflammation.

Implications for peptic ulcers induced by Helicobacter pylori bacteria. Helicobacter pylori attach to 2 specific glycans on the cell surfaces of stomach and duodenum. Once attached, the bacteria release various enzymes that along with the acidic content of the stomach, results in ulceration. Glycans are the first molecules encountered by bacteria as a means to attach to cells. The 8 sugars compete with bacteria for attachment to the glycans, and is one way of blocking bacterial adherence.

Implications for stress. Research has shown that the formation of glycoproteins is significantly altered in various types of stress, such as in infection, inflammation and trauma.

Stress exists in many forms, whether it is psychological (as in nervous system dysfunction), environmental (as in extreme heat or chemical toxins) or physicochemical (such as in exercise). Glycoproteins prevent and repair damage to cells as a result of these stresses.

Implications for Rheumatoid Arthritis. Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an inflammatory condition, and glyconutritions are known to positively affect inflammation.

RA is an autoimmune condition, meaning that antibodies are produced against the body’s own tissues; this implies that there is a miscommunication between the immune system and the joint tissue. The abnormal antibody produced is IgG, which has less than normal amounts of galactose in its structure, and during remission this reduction of galactose is reversed.

It has also been found that fucose is markedly reduced in RA patients. The greater the deficiency of fucose in RA patients, the more severe the symptoms will be.

Supplementation of the necessary sugars, i.e. galactose and fucose, needed by the body to combat this illness.

On the topic of auto-immune conditions I would like to share a case of mine successfully treated with the ise of these 8 essential sugars. Mrs T. presented to me with discoid lupus, which is a milder case of lupus which predominantly affects the skin, causing hard ‘scar-like’ lesions. She had these lesions spread throughout the body. I prescribed the sugars in a powder, 5g/day. After using them for a period of 3 months, all of her skin lesions were completely healed, as well as her anti nuclear factor had dropped right down to normal blood levels.

In my personal experience with these sugars I have found that they are the best in treating auto-immune conditions such as lupus, rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis etc. If you have any questions regarding the use of the 8 sugars for your health condition/s, feel free to contact me.


As can be seen from the above article, proper glycoprotein formation plays an important role on the maintenance of health and combating of disease. Sadly six of the eight sugars no longer appear in our food supply, and it has become necessary to supplement with these sugars in order to maintain optimum health.

Ayurveda Beauty Tips For Fatty Deposits in The Eyelids – A Sign Of Impaired Fat Metabolism

Fatty deposits in the eyelids just don’t look good. Fat is thick, oily, slimy and dense. Fat is found under the skin between the muscles, and in all the familiar places that we loathe it to be.

And fat is found behind the eyeballs in a place that is very helpful to us, unless it is in excess.

If you have fatty deposits in your eyelids you might also have excess thirst, slow metabolism, water retention, and love to sit and read or maybe even love to sleep a lot.

You can be skinny and have fatty deposits in your eyelids ,also? too skinny is a fat metabolism imbalance, also.

Do you ever get burning feet or hands? Or do you get multiple boils? These are real blocks to your beauty and are also health problems. These symptoms are related to fatty deposits in the eyelids and other places.

The first step to eliminating the ill effect of fatty deposits in your eyelids is to recognize them as a part of an extended health imbalance. Understand that it is related to your heart, liver and possibly your thyroid.

You can do a test in Ayurveda to measure your fat to find out if your fat metabolism is impaired. Measure the width of skin around the belly, breast, buttocks and hips with a common sewing tape measure. Do this daily. Do this weekly and compare. You will begin to see your body’s metabolism pattern.

Check your weight before eating. Eat your average meal. If you gain a half pound or more one hour after meal this is an indicator that you have a slow metabolism.

If you have fatty deposits in your eyelids, Ayurveda recommends for your daily beauty practice a specific diet.

Avoid salt, alcohol, red meat, hard cheeses, and, of course, fatty or fried foods.

The following herbs are the Ayurvedic recommendations for restoring good fat metabolism. But, please consult an Ayurvedic professional if you decide to use them; in Ayurveda every body is different and you need expert advice as to how to apply them to your unique needs. Trikatu, cumin, coriander and fennel are excellent for restoring healthy fat metabolism. If you cook with them regularly they are like a miracle for a person with fatty deposits and obesity.

Ayurveda recommends as a daily chant: “Exercise,Exercise, Exercise.” This is the mantra for the person who has this beauty issue. Also recommended is the breathing exercise known as the lion, in which you open your mouth like a lion, roars and breathe out ,stick your tongue out and shout out. The other breathing type is Bhastrika which is forceful exhalation and inhalation.

Emotional stress is a direct link to fat. The neuro-emotional science explaining stress and fat metabolism in the body has been mapped. So, there is not a discussion as to whether this is true or not. You could spend the next five years reading all the material already on the subject in modern science today. Just be aware of your need to exercise, eat spicy foods, light foods and do the breathing exercises I have mentioned. Fatty deposits in your eyelids are definitely a beauty challenge and it is a wake up call about the health of your fat metabolism.

The body types Ayurveda zeroes in on if you have fatty deposits in eyelids are KaphaVata, KaphaPitta, and predominate Kapha, and Vata body types if their fat metabolism is imbalanced are also affected.

Dr. Helen Thomas © 2008